Scientific Studies By Topic

Bone Health

Vegetarian diets and bone status, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014  

Protein intake and bone health, International Journal for Vitamin Nutrition Research, 2006

D (Vitamin D)

Natural Vitamin D Content in Animal Products,Advances in Nutrition, 2013

Cancer and Meat

Breast Cancer 

Protein Intake and Breast Cancer Survival in the Nurses' Health Study, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2016 


USDA Database for the Isoflavone Content of Selected Foods. Release 2.0., US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2008 


DRI for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, 2005

Meat Consumption Data

Overview of Canadians’ Eating Habits, Statistics Canada, 2007. Accessed September 22, 2015. 

Do Canadian Adults Meet Their Nutrient Requirements Through Food Intake Alone?, Health Canada, 2012. Accessed September 22, 2015.  

Food Statistics Analysis. Animal Products, Health Canada, last modified 2010. Accessed September 22, 2015. 

Nitrite Safety and Benefits

Dietary inorganic nitrate: From villain to hero in metabolic disease?, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 2016 

Sodium Nitrite Reduces Systolic Blood Pressure in Preeclampsia, Journal of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology, April 2015 

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Nitrate/Nitrite and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism, 2013 

Ingested nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer risk: An updated review, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012 

Human safety controversies surrounding nitrate and nitrite in the diet, Nitric Oxide, 2012 

Sodium Nitrite in Processed Meat and Poultry Meats:  A Review of Curing and Examining its Risk Benefit Use, American Meat Science Association White Paper, 2011 

Nutritional epidemiology in the context of nitric oxide biology: A risk–benefit evaluation for dietary nitrite and nitrate. Nitric Oxide, 2010

Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009

Sodium nitrite promotes regional blood flow in patients with sickle cell disease: a phase I/II study, British Journal of Haematology, 2008 

The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics, Nature Reviews, 2008 

Dietary nitrite supplementation protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007 

NO Generation From Nitrite and Its Role in Vascular Control, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2005 

Cytoprotective effects of nitrite during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and liver, The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2005  

The nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in organ transplantation: critical role in successful lung preservation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1994

Organic vs. Conventional Nutrition

Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009

Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2002 

Saturated Fat and Coronary Heart Disease

Nutrition data review shows red meat has neutral effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016.

Trans fats, but not saturated fats like butter, linked to greater risk of early death and heart disease, British Medical Journal, August 2015. 

Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, British Medical Journal, 2015

Dietary Intake of Saturated Fat Is Not Associated with Risk of Coronary Events or Mortality in Patients with Established Coronary Artery Disease, The International Journal of Nutrition, 2015

Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2014 

Dietary Protein Intake and Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, American Journal of Epidemiology, 2012

Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet study: effects on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012 

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010  

Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2006


Positive Selection on a Regulatory Insertion–Deletion Polymorphism in FADS2 Influences Apparent Endogenous Synthesis of Arachidonic Acid, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2016

Are We What We Eat? Evidence of a Vegetarian Diet Permanently Shaping the Human Genome to Change Individual Risk of Cancer and Heart Disease, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2016

How to Monitor and Advise Vegans to Ensure Adequate Nutrient Intake , Journal of the American Osteopathic Asociation, February 2016

Increased prevalence of vegetarianism among women with eating pathology , Eating Behaviors, 2015 

Vegetarian diets and bone status, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014

Maternal vegetarianism and neurodevelopment of children enrolled in The Danish National Birth Cohort, Acta Pediatrica, 2014 

The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study, PloS One, 2014 

Delirium as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency in a vegetarian female patient, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2013

The Inter-Relationships between Vegetarianism and Eating Disorders among Females, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2012 

Vegetarianism produces subclinical malnutrition, hyperhomocysteinemia and atherogenesis, Nutrition, 2011 

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2009. 

Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents. Canadian Pediatric Society, 2010

Neonatal Vitamin B12 Deficiency Secondary to Maternal Subclinical Pernicious Anemia: Identification by Expanded Newborn Screening , Journal of Pediatrics, 2008

Vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy as a cause of developmental regression , Brain and Development, 2005

Severe Vitamin B12 Deficiency in an Infant Associated With a Maternal Deficiency and a Strict Vegetarian Diet , Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 2004

Vegetarian diets and children , Journal of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2004

Vegetarianism and vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

Serum vitamin B12 and blood cell values in vegetarians, Annals of Nutrition Metabolism, 1982

Wound Healing

How dietary protein intake promotes wound healing,, 2013 

Zinc nutriture in the elderly in relation to taste acuity, immune response, and wound healing., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1982